Mathew Brady is often referred to as the father of photojournalism and is most well known for his documentation of the Civil War. His photographs, and those he commissioned, had a tremendous impact on society at the time of the war, and continue to do so today. He and his employees photographed thousands of images including battlefields, camp life, and portraits of some of the most famous citizens of his time including Abraham Lincoln and Robert E. Lee.
غالبًا ما يُشار إلى ماثيو برادي بأنه والد التصوير الصحفي ويشتهر بتوثيقه للحرب الأهلية. لقد كان لصوره ، وتلك التي كلفها ، تأثير هائل على المجتمع في وقت الحرب ، وما زالت تفعل ذلك اليوم. قام هو وموظفيه بتصوير آلاف الصور بما في ذلك ساحات المعارك وحياة المخيم وصور لبعض أشهر المواطنين في عصره بما في ذلك أبراهام لنكولن وروبرت إي لي.
Brady was born in Warren County, New York in the early 1820’s to Irish immigrants, Andrew and Julia Brady. Little is known about his early life, but historians believe that during a trip to the Albany area, in search of a cure for an eye inflammation, he met portrait painter William Page. It is also believed that through William Page, Brady met Samuel F.B. Morse. Morse, a professor of art, painting, and design at New York University and the inventor of the telegraph likely tutored Brady in the newly developed technology of daguerreotypy, the process of creating a mirror image on a silver-surfaced copper plate.
ولد برادي في مقاطعة وارن بنيويورك في أوائل عام 1820 للمهاجرين الأيرلنديين أندرو وجوليا برادي. لا يُعرف الكثير عن حياته المبكرة ، لكن المؤرخين يعتقدون أنه خلال رحلة إلى منطقة ألباني ، بحثًا عن علاج للالتهاب في العين ، التقى رسام بورتريه وليام بيج. ويعتقد أيضًا أنه من خلال ويليام بيج ، التقى برادي بصموئيل ف. مورس. من المرجح أن مورس ، أستاذ الفن والرسم والتصميم في جامعة نيويورك ومخترع التلغراف قام بتدريس برادي في التكنولوجيا المتطورة حديثًا لنمط daguerreotypy ، وهي عملية إنشاء صورة طبق الأصل على طبق من النحاس الفضي.
After moving to New York City, Brady began manufacturing cases for daguerreotypes, jewelry, and painted miniature portraits. He worked to build his skill and his reputation, opening, “The Daguerrean Miniature Gallery” on Broadway in 1844. Well known and accomplished in his profession, Brady won the highest award at the American Institute’s annual fair in 1844, 1845, 1846, 1849, and 1857, during which time he also began photographing well known Americans such as Edgar Allan Poe and James Fennimore Cooper.
بعد الانتقال إلى مدينة نيويورك ، بدأت برادي في تصنيع حالات لأنماط داغويروت ، ومجوهرات ، وصور مصغرة مصورة. عمل على بناء مهارته وسمعته ، بافتتاح "معرض Daguerrean المنمنمات" في برودواي في عام 1844. معروفًا وبارزًا في مهنته ، فاز برادي بأعلى جائزة في المعرض السنوي للمعهد الأمريكي في عام 1844 ، 1845 ، 1846 ، 1849 و 1857 ، وخلال تلك الفترة بدأ أيضًا في تصوير أميركيين معروفين مثل إدغار آلان بو وجيمس فينيمور كوبر.
Brady opened a studio in Washington DC and began making daguerreotypes of prominent politicians such as Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, Zachary Taylor, and Millard Fillmore. In 1850 he published “The Gallery of Illustrious Americans,” which sold for $15, equivalent to about $400 today. In 1851 Brady won medals at the Fair of All Nations in London and at New York’s Industrial Exhibition at Crystal Palace for his daguerreotypes.
افتتح برادي استوديوًا في واشنطن العاصمة وبدأ في صنع نماذج داغوروتيه من السياسيين البارزين مثل هنري كلاي ودانيال وبستر وجون سي كالهون وزاكاري تايلور وميلارد فيلمور. في عام 1850 نشر "معرض الأمريكيين اللامعين" ، الذي بيعت مقابل 15 دولارًا ، أي ما يعادل حوالي 400 دولار اليوم. في عام 1851 ، فاز برادي بميداليات في معرض جميع الأمم في لندن وفي المعرض الصناعي في نيويورك في كريستال بالاس لأنماطه daguerreototes.
At the outbreak of the Civil War, Brady sought to create a comprehensive photo-documentation of the war. At his own expense, he organized a group of photographers and staff to follow the troops as the first field-photographers. Brady supervised the activities of the photographers, including Timothy H. Sullivan, Alexander Gardner, and James F. Gibson, preserved plate-glass negatives, and bought from private photographers in order to make the collection as complete as possible. Brady and his staff photographed many images of the Civil War including the Fist Battle of Bull Run, Antietam, and Gettysburg.
عند اندلاع الحرب الأهلية ، سعى برادي إلى إنشاء توثيق صور شامل للحرب. على نفقته الخاصة ، قام بتنظيم مجموعة من المصورين والموظفين لمتابعة القوات كأول مصورين ميدانيين. أشرف برادي على أنشطة المصورين ، بما في ذلك تيموثي هـ. سوليفان ، وألكسندر جاردنر ، وجيمس ف. جيبسون ، الذين حافظوا على سلبيات زجاج الألواح ، واشتروا من مصورين خاصين من أجل جعل المجموعة كاملة قدر الإمكان. قام برادي وموظفيه بتصوير العديد من صور الحرب الأهلية بما في ذلك معركة قبضة بول ران ، أنتيتام ، وجيتيسبيرغ.
In 1862 Brady shocked the nation when he displayed the first photographs of the carnage of the war in his New York Studio in an exhibit entitled “The Dead of Antietam.” These images, photographed by Alexander Gardner and James F. Gibson, were the first to picture a battlefield before the dead had been removed and the first to be distributed to a mass public. These images received more media attention at the time of the war than any other series of images during the rest of the war A New York Times article in October, 1862, illustrates the impression these images left upon American culture stating, “Mr. Brady has done something to bring home to us the terrible reality and earnestness of war. If he has not brought bodies and laid them in our door-yards and along the streets, he has done something very like it…”
في عام 1862 ، صدم برادي الأمة عندما عرض الصور الأولى لمذبحة الحرب في استوديو نيويورك بنيويورك في معرض بعنوان "قتلى أنتيتام". كانت هذه الصور ، التي صورها ألكسندر جاردنر وجيمس إف جيبسون ، أول من تصور ساحة معركة قبل إزالة القتلى وأول من تم توزيعه على جمهور كبير. تلقت هذه الصور اهتمامًا إعلاميًا في وقت الحرب أكثر من أي سلسلة أخرى من الصور خلال بقية الحرب مقال في نيويورك تايمز في أكتوبر 1862 ، يوضح الانطباع الذي تركته هذه الصور على الثقافة الأمريكية قائلًا: "السيد برادي لديه فعل شيئًا ليعيد إلينا الواقع المرعب وجدية الحرب. إذا لم يجلب الجثث ووضعها في ساحات المنزل وعلى طول الشوارع ، فقد فعل شيئًا مثل ذلك ... "
By the end of the war Brady had accumulated serious debt in hopes of selling his collection to the New York Historical Society; however, the deal fell through. Fortunately for the American public Brady sold his collection to the United States government in 1875 for $25,000, just enough to pay off the debt he had accrued.
Following the war Brady continued to work in Washington DC with his nephew Levin Handy, who was also a photographer. In 1895 Brady suffered two broken legs as a result of a traffic accident. Having never fully recovered, Brady died on January 15, 1896 in New York. His funeral was financed by the New York 7th Regiment Veteran’s Association. Brady is buried beside his wife in Congressional Cemetery in Washington DC
بحلول نهاية الحرب ، كان برادي قد راكم ديونًا خطيرة على أمل بيع مجموعته إلى جمعية نيويورك التاريخية. ومع ذلك ، فشلت الصفقة. لحسن الحظ للجمهور الأمريكي ، قام برادي ببيع مجموعته إلى حكومة الولايات المتحدة في عام 1875 مقابل 25000 دولار ، وهو ما يكفي لسداد الديون التي تراكمت عليه. بعد الحرب استمر برادي في العمل في واشنطن العاصمة مع ابن أخيه ليفين هاندي ، الذي كان أيضًا مصورًا. في عام 1895 عانى برادي من كسر في ساقيه نتيجة لحادث مروري. بعد أن تعافى تمامًا ، توفي برادي في 15 يناير 1896 في نيويورك. تم تمويل جنازته من قبل جمعية الفوج السابع للمحاربين في نيويورك. دفن برادي بجانب زوجته في مقبرة الكونغرس في واشنطن العاصمة ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ
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Mathew Brady in 1875
|Died||January 15, 1896 (73–74)
New York City
Mathew B. Brady (c. 1822 – January 15, 1896) was an American photographer, and one of the earliest in American history. Best known for his scenes of the Civil War, he studied under inventor Samuel F. B. Morse, who pioneered the daguerreotype technique in America. Brady opened his own studio in New York in 1844, and photographed Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, and Abraham Lincoln, among other public figures.
كان ماثيو ب. برادي (حوالي 1822 - 15 يناير 1896) مصورًا أمريكيًا ، وواحدًا من أقدم المصورين في التاريخ الأمريكي. اشتهر بمشاهده للحرب الأهلية ، درس تحت المخترع صموئيل ف. مورس ، الذي كان رائد تقنية daguerreotype في أمريكا. افتتح برادي مرسمه الخاص في نيويورك عام 1844 ، وصوّر أندرو جاكسون ، وجون كوينسي آدامز ، وإبراهام لينكولن ، من بين شخصيات عامة أخرى.
When the Civil War started, his use of a mobile studio and darkroom enabled vivid battlefield photographs that brought home the reality of war to the public. Thousands of war scenes were captured, as well as portraits of generals and politicians on both sides of the conflict, though most of these were taken by his assistants, rather than by Brady himself.
After the war, these pictures went out of fashion, and the government did not purchase the master-copies as he had anticipated. Brady’s fortunes declined sharply, and he died in debt.
Brady left little record of his life before photography. Speaking to the press in the last years of his life, he stated that he was born between 1822 and 1824 in Warren County, New York, near Lake George. He was the youngest of three children to Irish immigrant parents, Andrew and Samantha Julia Brady. In official documents before and during the war, however, he claimed to have been born himself in Ireland.
At age 16, Brady moved to Saratoga, New York, where he met portrait painter William Page and became Page’s student. In 1839, the two traveled to Albany, New York, and then to New York City, where Brady continued to study painting with Page, and also with Page’s former teacher, Samuel F. B. Morse. Morse had met Louis Jacques Daguerre in France in 1839, and returned to the US to enthusiastically push the new daguerreotype invention of capturing images. At first, Brady’s involvement was limited to manufacturing leather cases that held daguerreotypes. But soon he became the center of the New York artistic colony that wished to study photography. Morse opened a studio and offered classes; Brady was one of the first students.[better source needed]
In 1844, Brady opened his own photography studio at the corner of Broadway and Fulton Street in New York, and by 1845, he began to exhibit his portraits of famous Americans, including the likes of Senator Daniel Webster and poet Edgar Allan Poe. In 1849, he opened a studio at 625 Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C., where he met Juliet (whom everybody called ‘Julia’) Handy, whom he married in 1850 and lived with on Staten Island. Brady’s early images were daguerreotypes, and he won many awards for his work; in the 1850s ambrotype photography became popular, which gave way to the albumen print, a paper photograph produced from large glass negatives most commonly used in the American Civil War photography.
In 1850, Brady produced The Gallery of Illustrious Americans, a portrait collection of prominent contemporary figures. The album, which featured noteworthy images including the elderly Andrew Jackson at the Hermitage, was not financially rewarding but invited increased attention to Brady’s work and artistry. In 1854, Parisian photographer André-Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri popularized the carte de visite and these small pictures (the size of a visiting card) rapidly became a popular novelty; thousands were created and sold in the United States and Europe.
In 1856, Brady placed an ad in the New York Herald offering to produce “photographs, ambrotypes and daguerreotypes.” This inventive ad pioneered, in the US, the use of typeface and fonts that were distinct from the text of the publication and from that of other advertisements.
Civil War documentation
At first, the effect of the Civil War on Brady’s business was a brisk increase in sales of cartes de visite to departing soldiers. Brady readily marketed to parents the idea of capturing their young soldiers’ images before they might be lost to war by running an ad in The New York Daily Tribune that warned, “You cannot tell how soon it may be too late.” However, he was soon taken with the idea of documenting the war itself. He first applied to an old friend, General Winfield Scott, for permission to travel to the battle sites, and eventually, he made his application to President Lincoln himself. Lincoln granted permission in 1861, with the proviso that Brady finance the project himself.
His efforts to document the American Civil War on a grand scale by bringing his photographic studio onto the battlefields earned Brady his place in history. Despite the dangers, financial risk, and discouragement by his friends, Brady was later quoted as saying “I had to go. A spirit in my feet said ‘Go,’ and I went.” His first popular photographs of the conflict were at the First Battle of Bull Run, in which he got so close to the action that he barely avoided capture. While most of the time the battle had ceased before pictures were taken, Brady came under direct fire at the First Battle of Bull Run, Petersburg, and Fredericksburg.
He also employed Alexander Gardner, James Gardner, Timothy H. O’Sullivan, William Pywell, George N. Barnard, Thomas C. Roche, and seventeen other men, each of whom was given a traveling darkroom, to go out and photograph scenes from the Civil War. Brady generally stayed in Washington, D.C., organizing his assistants and rarely visited battlefields personally. However, as author Roy Meredith points out, “He [Brady] was essentially the director. The actual operation of the camera though mechanical is important, but the selection of the scene to be photographed is as important, if not more so than just ‘snapping the shutter.'”
This may have been due, at least in part, to the fact that Brady’s eyesight had begun to deteriorate in the 1850s. Many of the images in Brady’s collection are, in reality, thought to be the work of his assistants. Brady was criticized for failing to document the work, though it is unclear whether it was intentional or due simply to a lack of inclination to document the photographer of a specific image. Because so much of Brady’s photography is missing information, it is difficult to know not only who took the picture, but also exactly when or where it was taken.
In October 1862 Brady opened an exhibition of photographs from the Battle of Antietam in his New York gallery, titled The Dead of Antietam. Many images in this presentation were graphic photographs of corpses, a presentation new to America. This was the first time that many Americans saw the realities of war in photographs, as distinct from previous “artists’ impressions”.
Mathew Brady, through his many paid assistants, took thousands of photos of American Civil War scenes. Much of the popular understanding of the Civil War comes from these photos. There are thousands of photos in the US National Archives and the Library of Congress taken by Brady and his associates, Alexander Gardner, George Barnard and Timothy O’Sullivan. The photographs include Lincoln, Grant, and soldiers in camps and battlefields. The images provide a pictorial cross reference of American Civil War history. Brady was not able to photograph actual battle scenes, as the photographic equipment in those days was still in the infancy of its technical development and required that a subject be still for a clear photo to be produced.
Following the conflict, a war-weary public lost interest in seeing photos of the war, and Brady’s popularity and practice declined drastically.
Later years and death
During the war, Brady spent over $100,000 to create over 10,000 plates. He expected the US government to buy the photographs when the war ended. When the government refused to do so he was forced to sell his New York City studio and go into bankruptcy. Congress granted Brady $25,000 in 1875, but he remained deeply in debt. The public was unwilling to dwell on the gruesomeness of the war after it had ended, and so private collectors were scarce. Depressed by his financial situation and loss of eyesight, and devastated by the death of his wife in 1887, he died penniless in the charity ward of Presbyterian Hospital in New York City on January 15, 1896, from complications following a streetcar accident.
Brady’s funeral was financed by veterans of the 7th New York Infantry. He was buried in the Congressional Cemetery in Washington, D.C.
Levin Corbin Handy, Brady’s nephew by marriage, took over Brady’s photography business after his death.
Brady photographed 18 of the 19 American presidents from John Quincy Adams to William McKinley. The exception was the 9th President, William Henry Harrison, who died in office three years before Brady started his photographic collection. Brady photographed Abraham Lincoln on many occasions. His Lincoln photographs have been used for the $5 bill and the Lincoln penny. One of his Lincoln photos was used by the National Bank Note Company as a model for the engraving on the 90c Lincoln Postage issue of 1869.
The thousands of photographs which Mathew Brady’s photographers (such as Alexander Gardner and Timothy O’Sullivan) took have become the most important visual documentation of the Civil War, and have helped historians and the public better understand the era.
Brady photographed and made portraits of many senior Union officers in the war, including:
- Ulysses S. Grant
- Nathaniel Banks
- Don Carlos Buell
- Ambrose Burnside
- Benjamin Butler
- Joshua Chamberlain
- George Custer
- David Farragut
- John Gibbon
- Winfield Hancock
- Samuel P. Heintzelman
- Joseph Hooker
- Oliver Otis Howard
- David Hunter
- John A. Logan
- Irvin McDowell
- George McClellan
- James McPherson
- George Meade
- Montgomery C. Meigs
- David Dixon Porter
- William Rosecrans
- John Schofield
- William Sherman
- Daniel Sickles
- Henry Warner Slocum
- George Stoneman
- Edwin V. Sumner
- George Thomas
- Emory Upton
- James Wadsworth
- Lew Wallace
On the Confederate side, Brady photographed: Jefferson Davis, P. G. T. Beauregard, Stonewall Jackson, Albert Pike, James Longstreet, James Henry Hammond, and Robert E. Lee. Brady also photographed Lord Lyons, the British ambassador to Washington during the Civil War.
Photojournalism and honors
Brady is credited with being the father of photojournalism. He can also be considered a pioneer in the orchestration of a “corporate credit line.” In this practice, every image produced in his gallery was labeled “Photo by Brady”; however, Brady dealt directly with only the most distinguished subjects and most portrait sessions were carried out by others.
As perhaps the best-known US photographer in the 19th century, it was Brady’s name that came to be attached to the era’s heavy specialized end tables which were factory-made specifically for use by portrait photographers. Such a “Brady stand” of the mid-19th century typically had a weighty cast iron base for stability, plus an adjustable-height single-column pipe leg for dual use as either a portrait model’s armrest or (when fully extended and fitted with a brace attachment rather than the usual tabletop) as a neck rest. The latter was often needed to keep models steady during the longer exposure times of early photography. While Brady stand is a convenient term for these trade-specific articles of studio equipment, there is no proven connection between Brady himself and the Brady stand’s invention circa 1855.
In 2013, Brady Street in Tulsa, Oklahoma, was officially renamed “Mathew Brady Street.” The original namesake Brady was W. Tate Brady, a prominent businessman in Tulsa’s early history, who had connections to the Ku Klux Klan and other racist organizations. Following considerable controversy, the City Council of Tulsa, OK on August 15, 2013, voted to retain the name Brady for the street, but that it would now refer to and honor Mathew B. Brady instead. Mathew Brady never visited Tulsa in his lifetime.
Books and documentaries
Brady and his Studio produced over 7,000 pictures (mostly two negatives of each). One set “after undergoing extraordinary vicissitudes,” came into U.S. government possession. His own negatives passed in the 1870s to E. & H. T. Anthony & Company of New York, in default of payment for photographic supplies. They “were kicked about from pillar to post” for 10 years, until John C. Taylor found them in an attic and bought them; from this they became “the backbone of the Ordway–Rand collection; and in 1895 Brady himself had no idea of what had become of them. Many were broken, lost, or destroyed by fire. After passing to various other owners, they were discovered and appreciated by Edward Bailey Eaton,” who set in motion “events that led to their importance as the nucleus of a collection of Civil War photos published in 1912 as The Photographic History of the Civil War.
Some of the lost images are mentioned in the last episode of Ken Burns‘ 1990 documentary on the Civil War. Burns claims that glass plate negatives were often sold to gardeners, not for their images, but for the glass itself to be used in greenhouses and cold frames. In the years that followed the end of the war, the sun slowly burned away their filmy images and they were lost.
On September 19, 1862, two days after the Battle of Antietam, the bloodiest day of combat on U.S. soil with more than 23,000 killed, wounded or missing, Mathew Brady sent photographer Alexander Gardner and his assistant James Gibson to photograph the carnage. In October 1862, Brady displayed the photos by Gardner at Brady’s New York gallery under the title “The Dead of Antietam.” The New York Times published a review.
In October 2012, the National Museum of Civil War Medicine displayed 21 original Mathew Brady photographs from 1862 documenting the Civil War’s Battle of Antietam.
Brady (center, wearing straw hat), with General Ambrose Burnside (reading newspaper), taken in May 1864 (See Frassanito “Grant and Lee The Virginia Campaigns”).
General William J. Worth; a related picture also by Brady can be found on the George Eastman House Collection website.
Brady, upon his return from the First Battle of Bull Run
Scan of a photo-plate titled Agnew by Brady. (Apparently Dr Cornelius R. Agnew of the United States Sanitary Commission)
U.S. postage stamp of Abraham Lincoln (90 cents, issue of 1869) based on a Brady portrait photo.